"The Japanese whose skull pattern being less developed than that of the Caucasians,
might be responsible for their aggressive behavior?"

"You either have to castrate the German people or you have to treat them in a manner that they
can't just go on reproducing people who want to continue the way they have in the past."
~~~ Franklin Delano Roosevelt ~~~

So it can't happen here, oh really? The two photographs above are from Civil War "Happy Camps" in Illinois and New York State. When the Germans started building their camps in 1933 they were based on US Civil War camps, just like the final solution was based on American Eugenics programs already working in the US. So you can clearly see there have been "Happy Camps" in this country for 180 years. Even before the Civil War we were doing the same thing to American Indians. One of the first "Happy Camps" was called Oklahoma. If you want to visit there just follow that ole "Trail of Tears!"

Before we see what may be in store for us all, let's first take a look at where we've been. You see "Happy Camps"(tm) are an old American tradition. Here for your perusal in words and photos, an explanation...

Andy rounding up the Seminoles in Florida

President Andrew Jackson finished what the Puritans had begun 200 years before. In 1830, Congress, urged on by "Old Hickory," passed the "Indian Removal Act" which gave the federal government the power to relocate any Native Americans in the east to territory that was west of the Mississippi River. Though the Native Americans were to be compensated, this was rarely done fairly and in some cases led to the further destruction of many of the already diminishing numbers of most of the eastern tribes.

The Cherokee Nation was allocated land in Georgia as a result of the 1791 treaty with the U.S. Government. In 1828, not only did whites desire that land for settlement purposes but also for newly discovered gold. Georgia tried to reclaim this land in 1830, but the Cherokee protested and took the case to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court decided in favor of the Cherokee, however, the President and Congress forced the Native Americans to give up their land and in 1838 called in federal troops in to "escort" approximately 15,000 Cherokee people to their new home in the "Indian Territory." On the way, approx. 6,000 of the Cherokee people died. This event, known to the Cherokee as "The Trail Where They Cried," is better known as the "Trail of Tears."

The Trail Of Tears

Then There Was Abe...

Lincoln's first act was the suspension of habeas corpus on April 27, 1861. Habeas Corpus or, literally, "find the body," was the Constitutional law that required the government to actually provide a reason for locking someone away. There would be no protests allowed and all those who didn't want to be drafted, etc. found themselves as a disappearo in one of Abe's new Happy Camps, if they were lucky. If they weren't so lucky they found themselves executed without even a Bush tribunal or, as the citizens of New York City found out, being slaughtered by broadsides from US Battleships anchored in the harbor. Half of New York City was either burnt to the ground or shelled into little pieces along with the residents of old New York. Talk about your collateral damage! Hundreds died, thousands were wounded and many blacks were lynched!

Of course, the Civil war gave us and the modern world the ability to destroy whole cities, as General Sherman and others did. Union jails and prisons soon found themselves overflowing not with "Rebel" soldiers but with just plain folks, most of whom were there on mere suspicion of being disloyal. I mean he's a Jew right, or a Chink, or a Papist, or even worse, he's an Irishman!

This worked so well that by WWI the government of Woody Wilson, who had pledged not enter the war, had all the Happy Camps ready before we declared war. Moments after the declaration and long before any new anti-war protest had begun, whole groups were on their way to torture or death for being pacifists.

Interment Camp Hot Springs, North Carolina 1917 - 1918

By war's end 19 months later, over 100,000 had disappeared into the "Happy Camps." Although Woody didn't lock away as many as Abe, Franklin D. would more than make up the difference just 24 years later when it was time for whole races and ethnic groups of loyal Americans to go behind the machinegun towers and barbed wire.

While what FDR did was reprehensible and bordering on kidnapping and war crimes, however according to US law, it was perfectly legal. Here's why...

A brief time line...

1918: Codification of Alien Enemy Act of 1798, 50 USC 21-24, permitting apprehension and internment of aliens of "enemy ancestry" by US government upon declaration of war or threat of invasion. The President is given blanket authority as to "enemy alien" treatment. Civil liberties may be completely ignored because enemy aliens have no protection under this 202- year-old law. Government oppression is likely during wartime.

1939-1941: Various governmental bodies, such as the FBI, special intelligence agencies of the Justice Department, the Office of Naval Intelligence, and the Army's Military Intelligence Division compile lists of dangerous "enemy aliens" and citizens, including the FBI's Custodial Detention Index (the "CDI").

1940: The census includes specific listings and location of persons based on their ethnicity, which may have assisted the US Government in later identification of "suspect" individuals of "enemy ancestry."

1940: Alien Registration Act of 1940 passes requiring all aliens 14 and older to register with the US government.

Dec. 7, 1941: Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. Pursuant to the Alien Enemy Act of 1798, Roosevelt issued identical Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526 and 2527 branding German, Italian and Japanese nationals as enemy aliens, authorizing internment and travel and property ownership restrictions. A blanket presidential warrant authorized U.S. Attorney General Francis Biddle to have the FBI arrest a large number of "dangerous enemy aliens" based on the CDI. Hundreds of German aliens were arrested by the end of the day. The FBI raids many homes and hundreds more are detained before war is even declared on Germany.

Dec. 11, 1941: US declares war on Germany and Italy.

Jan. 1942: Pursuant to Presidential Proclamation 2525-2527 and 2537 (issued Jan.14, 1942), the Attorney General issues regulations requiring application for and issuance of certificates of identification to all "enemy aliens" aged 14 and older and outlining restrictions on their movement and property ownership rights. Approximately one million enemy aliens reregister, including 300,000 German-born aliens, the 2nd largest immigrant group at that time. Applications are forwarded to the Department of Justice's Alien Registration Division and the FBI. Any change of address, employment or name must be reported to the FBI. Enemy aliens may not enter federally designated restricted areas. If enemy aliens violate these or other applicable regulations, they are subject to "arrest, detention and internment for the duration of the war."

Jan.- Feb. 1942: In cooperation with the military, the DOJ establishes numerous small prohibited zones strictly forbidden to all enemy aliens. DOJ also establishes extensive "restricted areas" in which enemy aliens are subject to stringent curfew and travel restrictions, particularly on the West Coast.

Feb. 19, 1942: Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 authorizing the Secretary of War to define military areas in which "the right of any person to enter, remain in or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions" are deemed necessary or desirable. This order applies to all "enemy" nationalities.

March 11, 1942: Executive Order 9095 creates the Office of the Alien Property Custodian which gives the Custodian discretionary, plenary authority over all alien property interests. Many internee assets were frozen, creating immediate financial catastrophe for affected families.

Feb.-April 1942: Congress ratifies Executive Order 9066 authorizing the imposition of sanctions for violations of the order. Extensive military zones established on the east and west coasts, significantly expanding upon those originally created by DOJ, and in certain areas around the Great Lakes. Gen. John DeWitt issues a series of Public Proclamations creating Western Defense Command military areas and outlining curfews, travel restrictions and exclusion provisions, among other things, applicable to German, Japanese and Italian aliens, as well as Japanese American citizens. By military order, thousands of German, Japanese and Italian aliens required leave military areas on the West Coast. Later, approximately 100,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans are relocated from the West Coast to camps administered by the Wartime Relocation Authority. On an individual basis, "potentially dangerous" US citizens of German ancestry are also ordered out of military zones and forced to establish new lives with little or no government assistance.

October 1942: Wartime restrictions on Italian Americans terminated. Apparently FDR couldn't get a good pizza? Actually it was over a deal made with the Mafia.

In the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted
of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian.

Presidio of San Francisco, California
May 3, 1942


Living in the Following Area:

All of that portion of the City of Los Angeles, State of California, within that boundary beginning at the point at which North Figueron Street meets a line following the middle of the Los Angeles River; thence southerly and following the said line to East First Street; thence westerly on East First Street to Alameda Street; thence southerly on Alameda Street to East Third Street; thence northwesterly on East Third Street to Main Street; thence northerly on Main Street to First Street; thence north- westerly on First Street to Figueron Street; thence northeasterly on Figueron Street to the point of beginning.

Pursuant to the provisions of Civilian Exclusion Order No. 33, this Headquarters, dated May 3, 1942, all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien, will be evacuated from the above area by 12 o'clock noon, P. W. T., Saturday, May 9, 1942.

No Japanese person living in the above area will be permitted to change residence after 12 o'clock noon, P. W. T., Sunday, May 3, 1942, without obtaining special permission from the representative of the Commanding General, Southern California Sector, at the Civil Control Station located at:

Japanese Union Church,
120 North San Pedro Street,
Los Angeles, California.

Such permits will only be granted for the purpose of uniting members of a family, or in cases of grave emergency. The Civil Control Station is equipped to assist the Japanese population affected by this evacuation in the following ways:
1. Give advice and instructions on the evacuation.
2. Provide services with respect to the management, leasing, sale, storage or other disposition of most kinds of property, such as real estate, business and professional equipment, household goods, boats, automobiles and livestock.
3. Provide temporary residence elsewhere for all Japanese in family groups.
4. Transport persons and a limited amount of clothing and equipment to their new residence.

The Following Instructions Must Be Observed:

1. A responsible member of each family, preferably the head of the family, or the person in whose name most of the property is held, and each individual living alone, will report to the Civil Control Station to receive further instructions. This must be done between 8:00 A. M. and 5:00 P. M. on Monday, May 4, 1942, or between 8:00 A. M. and 5:00 P. M. on Tuesday, May 5, 1942.
2. Evacuees must carry with them on departure for the Assembly Center, the following property:
(a) Bedding and linens (no mattress) for each member of the family;
(b) Toilet articles for each member of the family;
(c) Extra clothing for each member of the family;
(d) Sufficient knives, forks, spoons, plates, bowls and cups for each member of the family;
(e) Essential personal effects for each member of the family.
All items carried will be securely packaged, tied and plainly marked with the name of the owner and numbered in accordance with instructions obtained at the Civil Control Station. The size and number of packages is limited to that which can be carried by the individual or family group.
3. No pets of any kind will be permitted.
4. No personal items and no household goods will be shipped to the Assembly Center.
5. The United States Government through its agencies will provide for the storage, at the sole risk of the owner, of the more substantial household items, such as iceboxes, washing machines, pianos and other heavy furniture. Cooking utensils and other small items will be accepted for storage if crated, packed and plainly marked with the name and address of the owner. Only one name and address will be used by a given family.
6. Each family, and individual living alone will be furnished transportation to the Assembly Center or will be authorized to travel by private automobile in a supervised group. All instructions pertaining to the movement will be obtained at the Civil Control Station.

Go to the Civil Control Station between the hours of 8:00 A. M. and 5:00 P. M., Monday, May 4, 1942, or between the hours of 8:00 A. M. and 5:00 P. M., Tuesday, May 5, 1942, to receive further instructions.

Lieutenant General,
U. S. Army Commanding


Americans of German descent were rounded up too...

Crystal City Texas

Kenedy Texas

Camp Forrest Tennesee

Ft. Lincoln Bismark North Dakota

Ellis Island

Christmas 1943: A celebration not to be found
in the photographic histories of Ellis Island.

The dark years of Ellis Island, 1941 through 1948, remain a secret. Many German American families found themselves locked up in this place three years after the war in Europe had ended. They were held behind barbed wire fences and iron-barred windows. By 1947 hundreds had already been held for more than five years.

List of Detention Camps, Temporary Detention Centers, and Department of Justice Internment Camps


Permanent detention camps that held internees from March, 1942 until their closing in 1945 and 1946.

Amache (Granada), Colorado Opened August 24, 1942. Closed October 15, 1945. Peak population 7318. Origin of prisoners: Nothern California coast, West Sacramento Valley, Northern San Joaquin Valley, Los Angeles. 31 Japanese Americans from Amache volunteered and lost their lives in World War II. 120 died here between August 27, 1942 and October 14, 1945. In April, 1944, 36 draft resisters were sent to Tucson, AZ Federal Prison.
Gila River, Arizona Opened July 20, 1942. Closed November 10, 1945. Peak Population 13,348. Origin of prisoners: Sacramento Delta, Fresno County, Los Angeles area. Divided into Canal Camp and Butte Camp. Over 1100 citizens from both camps served in the U.S. Armed Services. The names of 23 war dead are engraved on a plaque here. The State of Arizona accredited the schools in both camps. 97 students graduated from Canal High School in 1944. Nearly 1000 prisoners worked in the 8000 acres of farmland around Canal Camp, growing vegetables and raising livestock.2
Heart Mountain, Wyoming Opened August 12, 1942. Closed November 10, 1945. Peak population 10,767. Origin of prisoners: Santa Clara County, Los Angeles, Central Washington. In November, 1942, Japanese American hospital workers walked out because of pay discrimination between Japanese American and Caucasian American workers. In July, 1944, 63 prisoners who had resisted the draft were convicted and sentenced to 3 years in prison. The camp was made up of 468 buildings, divided into 20 blocks. Each block had 2 laundry-toilet buildings. Each building had 6 rooms each. Rooms ranged in size from 16' x 20' to 20' x 24'. There were 200 administrative employees, 124 soldiers, and 3 officers. Military police were stationed in 9 guard towers, equipped with high beam search lights, and surrounded by barbed wire fencing around the camp.
Jerome, Arkansas Opened October 6, 1942. Closed June 30, 1944. Peak population 8497. Origin of prisoners: Central San Joaquin Valley, San Pedro Bay area. After the Japanese Americans in Jerome were moved to Rohwer and other camps or relocated to the east in June, 1944, Jerome was used to hold German POWs.
Manzanar, California Opened March 21, 1942. Closed November 21, 1945. Peak population 10,046. Origin of prisoners: Los Angeles, San Fernando Valley, San Joaquin County, Bainbridge Island, Washington. It was the first of the ten camps to open -- initially as a processing center.
Minidoka, Idaho Opened August 10, 1942. Closed October 28, 1945. Peak population 9397. Origin of prisoners: Seattle and Pierce County, Washington, Portland and Northwestern Oregon. 73 Minidoka prisoners died in military service.
Poston (aka Colorado River), Arizona Opened May 8, 1942. Closed November 28, 1945. Peak population 17,814. Origin of prisoners: Southern California, Kern County, Fresno, Monterey Bay Area, Sacramento County, Southern Arizona. 24 Japanese Americans held at Poston later lost their lives in World War II. Poston was divided into three separate camps -- I, II, and III.
Rohwer, Arkansas Opened September 18, 1942. Closed November 30, 1945. Peak population 8475. Origin of prisoners: Los Angeles and Stockton.
Topaz (aka Central Utah), Utah Opened September 11, 1942. Closed October 31, 1945. Peak population 8130. Origin of prisoners: San Francisco Bay Area.
Tule Lake, California Opened May 27, 1942. Closed March 20, 1946. Peak population 18,789. Origin of prisoners: Sacramento area, Southwestern Oregon, and Western Washington; later, segregated internees were brought in from all West Coast states and Hawaii. One of the most turbulent camps -- prisoners held frequent protest demonstrations and strikes.



Temporary detention centers were used from late March, 1942 until mid-October, 1942, when internees were moved to the ten more permanent internment prisons. These temporary sites were mainly located on large fairgrounds or race tracks in visible and public locations. It would be impossible for local populace to say that they were unaware of the removal and imprisonment of Japanese Americans.

Tanforan Temporary Detention Center

Tanforan Temporary Detention Center, San Bruno, CA

Fresno, California First inmate arrival May 6, 1942. Last inmate departure October 30, 1942. Peak population 5120.

Manzanar, California First inmate arrival March 21, 1942. Peak population (before June 1, 1942) 9666. Before it was leased from the City of Los Angeles, Manzanar was once ranch and farm land until it reverted to desert conditions. Manzanar was transfered from the WCCA to WRA on June 1, 1942, and converted into a "relocation camp."

Marysville, California First inmate arrival May 8, 1942. Last inmate departure June 29, 1942. Peak population 2451.

Mayer, Arizona First inmate arrival May 7, 1942. Last inmate departure June 2, 1942. Peak population 245. Mayer was a camp abaondoned by the Civilian Conservation Corp.

Merced, California First inmate arrival May 6, 1942. Last inmate departure September 15, 1942. Peak population 4508.

Pinedale, California First inmate arrival May 7, 1942. Last inmate departure July 23, 1942. Peak population 4792. Pinedale was the previous site of a mill.

Pomona, California First inmate arrival May 7, 1942. Last inmate departure August 24, 1942. Peak population 5434.

Portland, Oregon First inmate arrival May 2, 1942. Last inmate departure September 10, 1942. Peak population 3676. Portland used the Pacific International Live Stock Exposition Facilities to hold detainees.

Puyallup, Washington First inmate arrival April 28, 1942. Last inmate departure September 12, 1942. Peak population 7390.5

Sacramento, California First inmate arrival May 6, 1942. Last inmate departure June 26, 1942. Peak population 4739. Sacramento used a former migrant camp.

Salinas, California First inmate arrival April 27, 1942. Last inmate departure July 4, 1942. Peak population 3594.

Santa Anita, California First inmate arrival March 27, 1942. Last inmate departure October 27, 1942. Peak population 18,719.

Stockton, California First inmate arrival May 10, 1942. Last inmate departure October 17, 1942. Peak population 4271.

Tanforan, San Bruno, California First inmate arrival April 28, 1942. Last inmate departure October 13, 1942. Peak population 7816. Tanforan is now a large shopping mall by the same name.

Tulare, California First inmate arrival April 20, 1942. Last inmate departure September 4, 1942. Peak population 4978.

Turlock, Byron, California First inmate arrival April 30, 1942. Last inmate departure August 12, 1942. Peak population 3662.


27 U.S. Department of Justice Camps (most at Crystal City, Texas, but also Seagoville, Texas; Kooskia, Idaho; Santa Fe, NM; and Ft. Missoula, Montana) were used to incarcerate 2,260 "dangerous persons" of Japanese ancestry taken from 12 Latin American countries by the US State and Justice Departments. Approximately 1,800 were Japanese Peruvians. The U.S. government wanted them as bargaining chips for potential hostage exchanges with Japan, and actually did use. After the war, 1400 were prevented from returning to their former country, Peru. Over 900 Japanese Peruvians were deported to Japan. 300 fought it in the courts and were allowed to settle in Seabrook, NJ. Efforts to bring justice to the Japanese Peruvians are still active.

Santa Fe, NM

Bismarck, ND

Crystal City, TX

Missoula, MT

Seagoville, Texas

Kooskia, Idaho

Ft. Missoula

Ft. Missoula, Montana Internment Camp

Get the picture? Good then we can continue with what's happening.
First the mechanism that allows you and your family to just disappear!

Please visit the other 'camp sites' and tell me what you think via the email. I'd really like to hear from you!
(c) 2022

Email: uncle-ernie@issuesandalibis.org